Research with women has found that underreporting of USE in surveys is often related to failure to perceive the experience as coercive or to recall the experience in response to item phrasing, and conscious decision not to report for reasons including feelings of shame (Kendall-Tackett & Becker-Blease, 2004; Koss et al., 1994); similar factors influence non-disclosure to the police and health professionals.
In men, additional barriers to disclosure include fear of being judged to be gay, and widespread conceptions of masculinity which dictate that men should be physically and mentally strong, self-reliant, and sexually assertive (Davies, 2002; Donnelly & Kenyon, 1996; Sable, Danis, Mauzi, & Gallagher, 2006).
In Chile’s 2000 National Survey of Sexual Behavior, administered to a representative urban sample of adults, 1.9% of male participants responded affirmatively to the question “Have you ever been a victim of rape?
” (Goldstein et al., 2000); other forms of USE were not assessed.
A critical literature review based on samples of North-American and European adult men noted several reasons for the wide range of prevalence estimates, including differences in populations studied, time frames considered, and USE definitions (Peterson, Voller, Polusny, & Murdoch, 2011).
Self-reports of USE are also known to be sensitive to number and phrasing of items and the context within which questions are placed in the survey (Abbey, Parkhill, & Koss, 2005).
For example, a qualitative study of 30 sexual assault crisis providers in a Southeastern U. city found that male law enforcement officers often did not acknowledge that men could be victims; at the same time, many female crisis center workers held the view that women almost never commit sexual violence and that, given their strength and power, men are rarely victims (Donnelly & Kenyon, 1996).
To date, no quantitative studies have examined USE in this population.
Based on the National Violence Against Women Survey–a representative U. data set on adult men and women–another study found that among men who reported CSA, the AORs for physical and sexual victimization in adulthood (by intimate partners or other perpetrators) were 2.5 and 5.5, respectively (Desai, Thompson, & Basile, 2002).
Just as the sexual behaviors assessed in measures of USE in young men vary greatly across studies, the same is true for CSA (Hulme, 2004; Senn, Carey, & Vanable, 2008); in the studies cited above, CSA measures ranged from assessing only the most severe types of USE (Desai et al., 2002) to assessing “unwanted sexual touching, fondling, rape, or attempted rape” (Daigneault et al., 2009, p. Regarding other risk factors, some studies have suggested that witnessing domestic violence in childhood may increase vulnerability to subsequent USE (Lehrer, Lehrer, Lehrer, & Oyarzún, 2007; Vézina & Hébert, 2007) and poor family functioning and cohesion have been linked with heightened risk of sexual revictimization among those with a history of CSA (Classen, Gronsyaka, & Aggarwal, 2005).
The aims of this study were to examine: (1) prevalence of and risk factors for USE since age 14, and (2) contexts and reasons for non-disclosure of USE.
In our multivariate analyses, we focused on USE before age 14 as a predictor of USE since age 14, adjusting for two other domains addressed in the survey: witnessing domestic violence in childhood and socioeconomic/ demographic variables.